Child Health

Care for Pneumonia

Caregivers appropriately manage care for signs and symptoms of ARI for children

Prompt and appropriate care seeking for ARI could prevent over 900,000 deaths of children under five every year.1UNICEF MICS
United Nations Children's Fund 
This is an occasional behavior that needs to be practiced without hesitation at the onset of infection danger signs.

Key Points from Global Research

  • Successfully improving poor community-based diagnosis and treatment can increase prompt care seeking in households with children under five.
  • Helping caregivers understand the symptoms and seriousness of pneumonia in children under five can encourage them to seek care.

Behavior Profile Sample: Care for Pneumonia

A Behavior Profile is a summary analysis of each behavior. This sample draws from global evidence and illustrates the result of using the Create Behavior Profiles Tool to analyze factors, supporting actors and strategies and to ensure logical pathways exist between strategies proposed and factors related to the practice of the behavior. This sample may be used as a starting point or reference for creating country-specific Behavior Profiles.

CREATE Country-specific Behavior Profiles

Improve maternal and child survival
Caregivers appropriately manage care for signs and symptoms of ARI for children
Percentage of children born in the five years preceding the survey with acute respiratory infection taken to a health facility

Behavior Analysis

Strategy

STEPS

What steps are needed to practice this behavior?
  1. Recognize signs and symptoms of ARI
  2. Mobilize transport, resources and logistics
  3. Obtain appropriate diagnosis and treatment from a qualified provider
  4. Adhere to full course of prescribed treatment
  5. Continue or increase breastfeeding appropriate for age
  6. Continue other fluids and feeding as possible during illness
  7. Provide extra food according to age for at least 2 weeks following illness

Click on any box
        to see the pathwaysA pathway illustrates how elements in the Behavior Profile are linked. When read from right to left, a pathway highlights how strategies are expected to address the factors to enable adoption of the Accelerator Behavior.  
        of the behavior.

FACTORS

What factors may prevent or support practice of this behavior? These should be analyzed for each country context.
Structural
Accessibility: Easy transport to distant facilities often unavailable
Accessibility: The cost of services and treatment options is frequently more than caregivers can pay
Facility Experience: Poorly equipped, supplied and staffed health care facilities discourage caregivers from seeking help
Social
Family and Community Support: Caregivers often lack encouragement from spouse or influential social actors for careseeking when child is ill
Norms: Often cultural beliefs discourage care-seeking at health care facilities
Internal
Attitudes and Beliefs : Caregivers do not perceive the illness as serious enough to require care seeking at a health care facility
Knowledge: Most caregivers do not know the symptoms and danger signs of ARI

SUPPORTING ACTORS AND ACTIONS

Who must support the practice of this behavior?
Institutional
Policymakers: Formulate national policy to provide free treatment for children under five
Logistics Personnel: Proactively monitor stock levels and forecast needed medical supplies and drugs
Community
Community Leaders: Establish community transport schemes for urgent careseeking
Household
Family Members: Encourage caregivers to seek treatment with trained health providers at onset of symptoms

POSSIBLE PROGRAM STRATEGIES

How might we focus our efforts based on this analysis?
Enabling Environment
Policies and Governance: Formulate national policy to provide free treatment for children under five
Policies and Governance: Formulate policies that ensure community involvement in how health care facilities are staffed and supervised
Systems, Products and Services
Quality Improvement: Train and equip village health workers to diagnose and treat pneumonia
Quality Improvement: Train private pharmacies to recognize and appropriately treat or refer children with symptoms of pneumonia
Demand and Use
Communication: Utilize all well-child health touchpoints to work with mothers and families on the recognition of symptoms of childhood illness, including ARI and the need for immediate care-seeking
Skills Building: Train and equip community and religious leaders to facilitate careseeking through community mobilization and transport or financing schemes

Global Status of Accelerator Behavior

Percentage of children born in the five years preceding the survey with acute respiratory infection taken to a health facility

Demographic and Health Survey, Rapid Survey on Children, The DHS Program Indicator Data API, The Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Program, World Bank World Development Indicators

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